|Capital: Dong Hoi
Region: Central Coast
Area: 8,051.8 km2
Ethnicities: Kinh, Bru - Van Kieu, Chut
|Calling code: 052 |
|Town and Districts|
|Tuyen Hoa, Minh Hoa, Quang Trach, Bo Trach, Quang Ninh, Le Thuy |
|General Information |
|Quang Binh is a province in the North Central Coast of Vietnam, from 16o55' to 18o0'’ North and 105o37' to 107o00' East. Quang Binh Province is surrounded by Ha Tinh Province on the north, East Sea on the east, Laos on the west and Quang Tri Province on the south. The narrowest part from east (seaside) to west (Laotian border) is just 40 km. The province is home to the World Heritage Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park.|
The provincial topography is characterized by a general slope, higher in the west and lower in the east, with hilly and mountainous areas accounting for 85% of the total area. The Annamite Range is the natural border between Quang Binh Province and Laos with peaks ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 m, the summit of which is peak Phi Co Pi with the height of 2,017 m. In the east of the provice are lower hills and then several narrow plains and river deltas. The seaside sand dunes belt is a natural dam to protect the land from the ocean tides.
Under Hung kings, when Van Lang nation founded Van Lang tribal coalition, Quang Binh belonged to Viet Thuong group. Under Le Trung Hung, this province was named Tien Binh. The central and the south Vietnam (from Ngang mount pass to Binh Thuan Province was long Champa Kingdom. The wars between Champa kingdom and Dai Viet before then had happened very regularly, most of the wars logded by Champa kingdom who was then stronger than Dai Viet (Viet the great). Quang Binh was a conflicted territory between Champa and Dai Viet in hundreds of years and became Dai Viet's territory in 1306 after the political marriage of the Tran Dynasty princess Huyen Tran, to Champa king, Jaya Sinhavarman III (Vietnamese: Che Man). Princess Huyen Tran was king Tran Nhan Tong's daughter and king Tran Anh Tong's younger sister. Political matches made to acquire land was a traditional practice by Champa kings. Thanks to this marriage, Dai Viet acquired lands (as dowry) of what is now Quang Binh province, Quang Tri Province, and Thua Thien - Hue Province (then known respectively as Chau O and Chau Ri or Chau Ly). During Trinh-Nguyen family war in 17th century, Gianh River in Quang Binh Province was made the frontier between Dang Trong (South Vietnam) and Dang Ngoai (North Vietnam). Dong Hoi city was built as a fortress to protect Nguyen's family Dang Trong from Dang Ngoai's attacks. In 1604 the provincial name was changed to Quang Binh. Lord Nguyen Phuc Khoat divided Quang Binh into 3 counties (dinh): dinh Bo Chinh (formely dinh Ngoi), dinh Muoi (or dinh Luu Don), and dinh Quang Binh (or dinh Tram). The province was established in 1831, with the part of phu Quang Ninh, then added phu Quang Tr?ch. Under French colony (French Indochina, Quang Binh was situated in Annam of French Indochina and Dong Hoi airbase in Quang Binh was used by French army to attack Viet Minh in north-central Vietnam and Laotian Pathet army in north and south Laos. In 1954, the Geneva Accord was signed by France and Vietnam and invilved parties. According to which, Vietnam is temporarily divided into 2 part with Parallel 17 as frontier. The North Vietnam was under communist control while the South Vietnam was in anti-communist and French collaborators control and a universal election would be held in 1956 to unify the country. However, in the South, Ngo Dinh Diem held a referendum and founded pro-American the Republic of Vietnam. Quang Binh belonged to the North Vietnam, just 50 km north of Parallel 17. During Vietnam War, Quang Binh was the most severely destroyed province by US B 52 bombardments due to its location near to Parallel 17 and the important part of Ho Chi Minh Trail. In 1976 Quang Binh, Quang Tr?, Thua Thien Province were merged into Binh Tr? Thien Province, in 1990 Binh Tri Thien Province was split into three provinces as they were before.